The Research Behind the Phono-Graphix Reading Method

Listed below are some of the most influential references and scholarly articles upon which the Phono-Graphix Reading Method is based. They cover various areas of investigation and bodies of knowledge in Linguistics and Language Theory, Psychology, Auditory Processing, Developmental Kinesiology, and Neuroscience.

(Note: Phono-Graphix Reading Company does not own the rights to any of these research articles, they are property of the author(s) and as such may require registration and/or payment to view in their entirety)

Alexander, A. W., Andersen, H. G., Heilman, P. C., Voeller, K. K., and Torgesen, J. K. 1991. Phonological awareness training and remediation of analytic decoding deficits in a group of severe dyslexics. Annals of Dyslexia 41:193-206.

Ball, E. W., and Blachman, B. A. 1988. Phoneme segmentation training: Effect on reading readiness. Annals of Dyslexia 38:208-25.

Ben-Dror, Frost, R., and Bentin, S. 1995. Orthographic representation and phonemic segmentation in skilled readers: A cross-language comparison. Psychological Science 6:176-81.

Bradley, L., and Bryant, P. E. 1978. Difficulties in auditory organization as a possible cause of reading backwardness. Nature 271:746-47.

Bradley, L., and Bryant, P. E. 1985. Rhyme and Reason in Reading and Spelling. Ann Arbor; University of Michigan Press.

Calfee, R., Lindamood, P., and Lindamood, C. 1973. Acoustic and phonetic skills and reading: Kindergarten through twelfth grade. Journal of Educational Psychology 64:293-98.

Ceci, S., and Roazzi, A. 1994. The effects of context on cognition. In R. J. Stemberg and R. K. Wagner (eds.). Mind in Context: Interactionist Perspectives on Human Intelligence. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Chall, J. 1967/1983. Learning to Read: The Great Debate. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Coulmas, F. 1989. The Writing Systems of the World. Oxford: Blackwell.

Dale, N. 1898. On the Teaching of English Reading. London: J. M. Dent and Co.

Dale, N. 1902. Further Notes on the Teaching of English Reading. London: Philip and Son.

Fletcher, M., Shaywitz, S. E., Shankweiler, D. P., Katz, L., Uberman, I. Y., Stuebing, K. K., Francis, D. J., Fowler, A. E., and Shaywitz, B. A. 1994. Cognitive profiles of reading disability: Comparison of discrepancy and low achievement definitions. Journal of Educational Psychology 86:6-23.

Fox, B., and Routh, D. K. 1975. Analyzing spoken language into words, syllables and phonemes: A developmental study. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 4:331-42.

Healey, F. 1990. The Early Alphabet. London: The British Museum.

Henry, M. K., 1989. Children's word structure knowledge: Implications for decoding and spelling instruction. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal 2:135-52.

Howard, M. 1982. Utilizing oral-motor feedback in auditory conceptualization. Journal of Educational Neuropsychology 2:24-35.

Kramer, S. N. 1963. The Sumerians. Chicago: Chicago University Press.

Liberman, A. M., Cooper, F. S., Shankweiler, D. P., and Studdert-Kennedy, M. 1967. Perception of the speech code. Psychological Review 74:431-61.

Lindamood, G. H., and Lindamood, P. C. 1969/1975. Auditory Discrimination in Depth. Alien, TX: DLM.

Lundberg, I., OIofsson, A., and Wall, S. 1980. Reading and spelling skills in the first two years predicted from phonemic awareness skills in kindergarten. Scandanavian Journal of Psychology 21:159-73.

McGuinness, D. 1981. Auditory and motor aspects of language development in males and females. In A. Ansara, N. Geswind, A. Galaburda, M. Albert, and N. Gartress (eds.). Sex Differences in Dyslexia. Towson, MD; The Orton Dyslexia Society.

McGuinness, D. 1985. When Children Don’t Learn. New York: Basic Books.

McGuinness, D. in press. Cracking the Literacy Code. New York: Free Press.

McGuinness, D., and McGuinness, C. 1991. Application, of Lindamood ADD program in the remediation of children with learning disabilities. Paper presented at the National Montessori Conference. Boston, November 1991.

McGuinness, D., McGuinness, C., and Donohue. 1995. Phonological awareness and the alphabet principle: Evidence for reciprocal causality. Reading Research Quarterly 30:830-52.

Morais, Cary, L., Alegria, and Bertelson, P. 1979. Does awareness of speech as a sequence of phones arise spontaneously? Cognition 7:323-31.

Ogden, S., Hindman, S., and Turner, S. D. 1989. Multisensory programs in the public schools: A brighter future for LD children. Annals of Dyslexia 39:247-67.

Pinnell, G. S., Lyons, C. A., Deford, D. E., Bryck, A., and Seltzer, M. 1994. Comparing instructional models for the literacy education of high-risk first graders. Reading Research Quarterly 29;8-39.

Read, C., Yun-Fei, Z., Hong-Yin, N., and Bao-Qing, D. 1986. The ability to manipulate speech sounds depends on knowing alphabetic writing. Cognition 24:31-44.

Richards, F.A., and Commons, M. L. 1990. Postformal cognitive-developmental theory and research. In C. N. Alexander and E. Langer (eds.). Higher Stages of Human Development. New York: Oxford University Press.

Robinson, A. 1995. The Story of Writing. London: Thames and Hudson.

Rosner and Simon, D. P. 1971. The auditory analysis test: An initial report. Journal of Learning Disabilities 4:384-92.

Shanahan, T, and Barr, R. 1995. Reading recovery: An independent evaluation of the effects of an early instructional intervention for at-risk learners. Reading Research Quarterly 30:958-96.

Shankweiler, D., Uberman, I. Y., Mark, L. S., Fowler, C. A., and Fischer, F. W. 1979. The speech code and learning to read. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory 5:531-44.

Slavin, R. E., Karweit, N. L., and Wasik, B. A. 1994. Preventing Early School Failure. Boston: Allyn and Bzon.

Stanback, M. L. 1992. Syllable and rime patterns for teaching reading: Analysis of frequency-based vocabulary of 17,602 words. Annals of Dyslexia 42:196-221.

Stanovich, K. E., Cunninghan, A. E., and Cramer, B. 1984. Assessing phonological awareness in kindergarten children: Issues of task compatability. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 38:175-90.

Stanovich, K. E., and Siegel, L. S. 1994. Phenotypic performance profile of children with reading disabilities: A regression-based test of the phonological-core variable-difference model. Journal of Educational Psychology 86:24-53.

Truch, S. 1994. Stimulating basic reading processes using auditory discrimination in depth. Annals of Dyslexia 44:60-80.

Tunmer, W. E., and Nesdale, A. R. 1985. Phonemic segmentation skill and beginning reading. Journal of Educational Psychology 77:417-527.

Vandervelden, M. C., and Siegel, L. S. 1995. Phonological recoding and phoneme awareness in early literacy: A developmental approach. Reading Research Quarterly 30:854-75.

Wagner, R. K., and Torgesen, J. K. 1987. The nature of phonological processing and its causal role in the acquisition of reading skills. Psychological Bulletin 101:192-212.

Woodcock, R. W. 1987. Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests - Revised. Circle Pines: American Guidance Service.

Share this page:

Related Pages

Research on Phono-Graphix - Peer Reviewed Publications

Implicit and Explicit Learning

Phono-Graphix in Theory and Practice

About the Phono-Graphix Reading Method

Get Certified in the Phono-Graphix Reading Method

Join the Professional Association of Phono-Graphix Reading Therapists

Contact Phono-Graphix Reading Company

Latest News

Oct 17, 2018

New video added to the members page: Multi-syllable level review with Erin Duncan and Maegan Chevrefils

Oct 4, 2018

Sound to Symbol to Meaning Dual Certification Courses:
Wednesdays, October 24-November 14, Arlington Public Schools, Arlington, VA

Aug 11, 2018

Sound to Symbol to Meaning Dual Certification Course:
Northshore School District, Bothell, Washington
August 20-23, 2018

May 16, 2018
Mar 13, 2018

Members: Show your support for Phono-Graphix by advertising your membership in the Phono-Graphix® Association of Reading Therapists on your own website.

Read All

Sponsored Therapists

Sharon M. Ware, Ph.D

Contact Sharon Ware, Licensed Trainer since 2002, at 860-778-4260 or E-Mail for training or reading instruction in or near West Hartford, CT, United States

Read America Clinic and the Phono-Graphix Reading Company

Contact Erin Duncan, Licensed PG2 Master Trainer since 2002, at 831-515-2913 or E-Mail for reading instruction in or near Scotts Valley, CA, United States

A2Z Reading Clinic, INC

Contact Laila Beidas, Certified PG Therapist since 2009, at 703-850-9203 or E-Mail for online reading instruction in or near Alexandria, VA, United States

Kimberly Higgins

Contact Kimberly Higgins, Certified PG2 Master Therapist since 2005, at 502-905-3973 or E-Mail for reading instruction in or near Louisville, KY, United States

Holly Basseri

Contact Holly Basseri, Certified PG Therapist since 2002, at or E-Mail for reading instruction in or near San Jose, CA, United States

Live & Learn

Contact Nancy Richardson, Licensed Trainer since 2000, at 301-448-0981 or E-Mail for reading instruction in or near Silver Spring, MD, United States
and the Washington, DC metro area

Dr. Douglas Stephey

Contact Douglas Stephey, Certified PG Therapist since 2002, at 626-332-4510 or E-Mail for reading instruction, vision therapy, interactive metronome, Sound Therapy, Safe and Sound therapy, Primitive Reflex therapy, colored lenses and prisms, magnocellular vision therapy, working memory / executive function therapy in or near Covina, CA, United States
Learn more about Dr. Stephey
Listen to Dr. Stephey's podcast on iTunes: Move Look & Listen

LinkEducation Resources

Contact Eve Margol, M.Ed, Certified PG Therapist since 2015, at (240)644-4648 or E-Mail for reading instruction in or near Olney, MD, United States
Educational Instructor, for children with special needs. Specializes in working with PreK-5th grade in Montgomery County area.