The Research Behind the Phono-Graphix Reading Method

Listed below are some of the most influential references and scholarly articles upon which the Phono-Graphix Reading Method is based. They cover various areas of investigation and bodies of knowledge in Linguistics and Language Theory, Psychology, Auditory Processing, Developmental Kinesiology, and Neuroscience.

(Note: Phono-Graphix Reading Company does not own the rights to any of these research articles, they are property of the author(s) and as such may require registration and/or payment to view in their entirety)

Alexander, A. W., Andersen, H. G., Heilman, P. C., Voeller, K. K., and Torgesen, J. K. 1991. Phonological awareness training and remediation of analytic decoding deficits in a group of severe dyslexics. Annals of Dyslexia 41:193-206.

Ball, E. W., and Blachman, B. A. 1988. Phoneme segmentation training: Effect on reading readiness. Annals of Dyslexia 38:208-25.

Ben-Dror, Frost, R., and Bentin, S. 1995. Orthographic representation and phonemic segmentation in skilled readers: A cross-language comparison. Psychological Science 6:176-81.

Bradley, L., and Bryant, P. E. 1978. Difficulties in auditory organization as a possible cause of reading backwardness. Nature 271:746-47.

Bradley, L., and Bryant, P. E. 1985. Rhyme and Reason in Reading and Spelling. Ann Arbor; University of Michigan Press.

Calfee, R., Lindamood, P., and Lindamood, C. 1973. Acoustic and phonetic skills and reading: Kindergarten through twelfth grade. Journal of Educational Psychology 64:293-98.

Ceci, S., and Roazzi, A. 1994. The effects of context on cognition. In R. J. Stemberg and R. K. Wagner (eds.). Mind in Context: Interactionist Perspectives on Human Intelligence. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Chall, J. 1967/1983. Learning to Read: The Great Debate. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Coulmas, F. 1989. The Writing Systems of the World. Oxford: Blackwell.

Dale, N. 1898. On the Teaching of English Reading. London: J. M. Dent and Co.

Dale, N. 1902. Further Notes on the Teaching of English Reading. London: Philip and Son.

Fletcher, M., Shaywitz, S. E., Shankweiler, D. P., Katz, L., Uberman, I. Y., Stuebing, K. K., Francis, D. J., Fowler, A. E., and Shaywitz, B. A. 1994. Cognitive profiles of reading disability: Comparison of discrepancy and low achievement definitions. Journal of Educational Psychology 86:6-23.

Fox, B., and Routh, D. K. 1975. Analyzing spoken language into words, syllables and phonemes: A developmental study. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 4:331-42.

Healey, F. 1990. The Early Alphabet. London: The British Museum.

Henry, M. K., 1989. Children's word structure knowledge: Implications for decoding and spelling instruction. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal 2:135-52.

Howard, M. 1982. Utilizing oral-motor feedback in auditory conceptualization. Journal of Educational Neuropsychology 2:24-35.

Kramer, S. N. 1963. The Sumerians. Chicago: Chicago University Press.

Liberman, A. M., Cooper, F. S., Shankweiler, D. P., and Studdert-Kennedy, M. 1967. Perception of the speech code. Psychological Review 74:431-61.

Lindamood, G. H., and Lindamood, P. C. 1969/1975. Auditory Discrimination in Depth. Alien, TX: DLM.

Lundberg, I., OIofsson, A., and Wall, S. 1980. Reading and spelling skills in the first two years predicted from phonemic awareness skills in kindergarten. Scandanavian Journal of Psychology 21:159-73.

McGuinness, D. 1981. Auditory and motor aspects of language development in males and females. In A. Ansara, N. Geswind, A. Galaburda, M. Albert, and N. Gartress (eds.). Sex Differences in Dyslexia. Towson, MD; The Orton Dyslexia Society.

McGuinness, D. 1985. When Children Don’t Learn. New York: Basic Books.

McGuinness, D. in press. Cracking the Literacy Code. New York: Free Press.

McGuinness, D., and McGuinness, C. 1991. Application, of Lindamood ADD program in the remediation of children with learning disabilities. Paper presented at the National Montessori Conference. Boston, November 1991.

McGuinness, D., McGuinness, C., and Donohue. 1995. Phonological awareness and the alphabet principle: Evidence for reciprocal causality. Reading Research Quarterly 30:830-52.

Morais, Cary, L., Alegria, and Bertelson, P. 1979. Does awareness of speech as a sequence of phones arise spontaneously? Cognition 7:323-31.

Ogden, S., Hindman, S., and Turner, S. D. 1989. Multisensory programs in the public schools: A brighter future for LD children. Annals of Dyslexia 39:247-67.

Pinnell, G. S., Lyons, C. A., Deford, D. E., Bryck, A., and Seltzer, M. 1994. Comparing instructional models for the literacy education of high-risk first graders. Reading Research Quarterly 29;8-39.

Read, C., Yun-Fei, Z., Hong-Yin, N., and Bao-Qing, D. 1986. The ability to manipulate speech sounds depends on knowing alphabetic writing. Cognition 24:31-44.

Richards, F.A., and Commons, M. L. 1990. Postformal cognitive-developmental theory and research. In C. N. Alexander and E. Langer (eds.). Higher Stages of Human Development. New York: Oxford University Press.

Robinson, A. 1995. The Story of Writing. London: Thames and Hudson.

Rosner and Simon, D. P. 1971. The auditory analysis test: An initial report. Journal of Learning Disabilities 4:384-92.

Shanahan, T, and Barr, R. 1995. Reading recovery: An independent evaluation of the effects of an early instructional intervention for at-risk learners. Reading Research Quarterly 30:958-96.

Shankweiler, D., Uberman, I. Y., Mark, L. S., Fowler, C. A., and Fischer, F. W. 1979. The speech code and learning to read. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory 5:531-44.

Slavin, R. E., Karweit, N. L., and Wasik, B. A. 1994. Preventing Early School Failure. Boston: Allyn and Bzon.

Stanback, M. L. 1992. Syllable and rime patterns for teaching reading: Analysis of frequency-based vocabulary of 17,602 words. Annals of Dyslexia 42:196-221.

Stanovich, K. E., Cunninghan, A. E., and Cramer, B. 1984. Assessing phonological awareness in kindergarten children: Issues of task compatability. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 38:175-90.

Stanovich, K. E., and Siegel, L. S. 1994. Phenotypic performance profile of children with reading disabilities: A regression-based test of the phonological-core variable-difference model. Journal of Educational Psychology 86:24-53.

Truch, S. 1994. Stimulating basic reading processes using auditory discrimination in depth. Annals of Dyslexia 44:60-80.

Tunmer, W. E., and Nesdale, A. R. 1985. Phonemic segmentation skill and beginning reading. Journal of Educational Psychology 77:417-527.

Vandervelden, M. C., and Siegel, L. S. 1995. Phonological recoding and phoneme awareness in early literacy: A developmental approach. Reading Research Quarterly 30:854-75.

Wagner, R. K., and Torgesen, J. K. 1987. The nature of phonological processing and its causal role in the acquisition of reading skills. Psychological Bulletin 101:192-212.

Woodcock, R. W. 1987. Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests - Revised. Circle Pines: American Guidance Service.

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Contact Phono-Graphix Reading Company

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Jan 11, 2023

We are delighted to announce that licensed trainer Michelle Cicotte will be piloting a new format for the Phono-Graphix Certification Course this month! The new Phono-Graphix Hybrid Certification Course combines state-of-the-art learning management technology with the mentorship of an experienced practitioner. Coursework includes self-paced online learning with online, but live, scheduled presentations, Q&A sessions and job-embedded coaching. The best of both worlds!

Nov 17, 2022

We are so pleased to see another step in the return to normalcy: expert trainer, Meg Davis is picking up where she left off in bringing Phono-Graphix to her district. Joining her is long-time practitioner, Jennifer Crain.
Sound to Symbol to Meaning Dual Certification Course:
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Oct 3, 2022

Welcome, University of Saint Joseph, Literacy Interns! Sharon M. Ware, Ph.D, Associate Professor, Director of Literacy Internship Program and Licensed Phono-Graphix trainer will conduct a certification course for USJ interns over the Fall semester, with a mix of instruction and job-embedded coaching. It's wonderful to see new teachers learning to prevent and address reading problems!

Sep 24, 2022

SOUND SEARCH STORIES is now available, the latest of our new DECODABLE PHONO-GRAPHIX STORY BOOKS! This book compiles the classic decodable stories aligned with the word lists and lessons of the Purple/Advanced Code Level, beautifully updated for more natural language and with engaging, full-color illustrations of adorable characters! ADD TO YOUR PHONO-GRAPHIX READER LIBRARY NOW!

Aug 16, 2022

Thank you, Hitchcock ISD Dyslexia Interventionists, for joining in our Certification Training. And thank you, Ceresa Nichols, for conducting their Certification Course there in Hitchcock this month. We're so pleased that you are learning Phono-Graphix!

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